Literature Review


Christensen, Clayton M., and Michael Raynor. The Innovator's Solution. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2003. Print.

  • Building on Christensen's seminal work The Innovator's Dilemma, this book fleshes out some points of the theory, and builds a model for envisioning, creating, cultivating, and shepherding disruptive innovations successfully and sustainably. 

Govindarajan, Vijay, and Chris Trimble. Reverse Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2012. Print.
  • This book builds on Prahalad's work on innovations at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) to explore how some of these innovations have not only amassed fortunes at the bottom of the pyramid, but also 'leaped up' the pyramid as disruptive entrants into developed markets. While the book is targeted towards the general management of Multinational Corporations (MNCs), it is nevertheless relevant in cataloging successful BoP innovations, and suggesting the dynamics of up-market movement for these innovations.

Christensen, Clayton M.; Grossman, Jerome H., and Jason Hwang, M.D. The Innovator's Prescription. New York: McGraw Hill, 2009. Print.
  • The bible for healthcare business model innovation, this seminal work explains the reasons behind the high healthcare costs in the U.S., looks at structural barriers to innovation, and expounds a way forward through disruptive new business models. Facilitating the growth of highly accessible, affordable healthcare technologies from overseas in the U.S. market fits within this fundamental approach to healthcare reform. 

Burns, Robert Lawton, ed. India's Healthcare Industry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Print.
  • An excellent collection of case studies and chapters exploring much of India's healthcare economy. Chapters 11 and 15 on providing care to the bottom of the pyramid, and the medical device sector in India, respectively, are very relevant for this project, and provided many useful leads into important companies in India.

Prahalad, C.K. The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
  • This seminal work collects an impressive array of examples of innovations that have scaled profitably at and for developing markets, many of which are included on my running list of innovations from emerging markets. Prahalad presents several lessons from these 'experiments' so far: 
    • Embrace constraints 
    • Build an ecosystem
    • Co-create solutions
    • Adopt a new concept of scale
    • Use technology
    • Innovations will emerge from practicing sustainability at the bottom of the pyramid
    • Bottom of the pyramid markets are evolving rapidly
Herzlinger, Regina. Who Killed Healthcare? New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

  • This is a spicy indictment of the players who've contributed to mucking up our healthcare system, including the health insurers, the general hospitals, the employers, the U.S. Congress, and the academics who support the legacy top-down system. It turns out that Uncle Sam is an exceptionally poor doctor, and the government should really just stick to its role in ensuring solvency, fairness, integrity, transparency, and care for the very poor, and step far back from trying to ration care or prescribe protocols that physicians are far better equipped to develop. Entrepreneurs must be allowed to succeed in bottom-up fashion, and the citizenry should have cost and performance comparison information about providers as in any other consumer-driven market. 

Yunus, Muhammad. Banker to the Poor. New York: Public Affairs, 1999. Print.
  • A book about the rise of perhaps the most successful 'bottom of the pyramid' innovation to date, Grameen Bank, which was the first micro-lending institution for the very poor. The relevance of this book to this project is best put in Yunus's words

Mycoskie, Blake. Start Something that Matters. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2012. Print.
  • Tells the TOMS shoe story, which is a perfect illustration of innovation arbitrage; Mycoskie discovers the alpargata shoe in Argentina, as well as the huge demand for shoes in the favelas, and he decides to market an alpargata-like shoe in the United States (which has been extremely successful), as well as donate one free pair of TOMS shoes to children in need for each pair purchased in the U.S. Relevant chapters discuss being resourceful without resources, keeping it simple, building trust, and how giving is good business. 

Khanna, Tarun. Billions of Entrepreneurs. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2007. Print.
  • A book on the immense innovation contributions of India and China to date, as well as the context comprising their respective innovation environments. The most relevant chapters for this project are chapters six, nine, ten, and fourteen, on unshackling indigenous enterprise, searching for rural fortunes, attempting to solve pressing public health challenges, and building corporate bridges between the West, India and China. 

Christensen, Clayton M., Scott D. Anthony, and Erik A. Roth. Seeing What's Next. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2004. Print.
  • This book seeks to use Christensen's theories of disruption to predict industry changes. The most relevant chapter for this project is 'Innovation Overseas,' which discusses bottom of the pyramid innovation as an ultimate laboratory for creating disruptive global innovations due to their extreme constraints and size.

Ries, Erik. The Lean Startup. New York: Crown Business, 2011. Print.
  • A book about how today's entrepreneurs, especially those within the software industries, use continuous innovation to create successful businesses. Ries gives a framework for getting the vision right through a process of rapid experimentation, steering a nascent innovation to success, and finally accelerating the production to scale. This book is a great tactical manual for 'gaining a market foothold' in new environments for which existing technologies may need to be exapted.

Anthony, Scott. The Silver Lining. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print.
  • A more constrained economy may lead to an increase in innovation as resources become less available for both companies and consumers. Consumers will demand products at the low end, leading to rewards for those who 'learn to love the low end.' Innovations developed for the low end now may lead to the growth engines of tomorrow.

Khanna, Tarun, and Krishna G. Palepu. Winning in Emerging Markets. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2010. Print.
  • A book that drives home the demanding nature of investing in emerging markets. Doing so requires a high level of commitment, coordination, time, and capital, but the rewards can be very large. Relevant instruction for this project from Khanna and Palepu includes spotting institutional voids and building intermediary-based businesses in emerging markets.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. Making Globalization Work. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006. Print.
  • Largely a book about how to manage globalization so that it benefits all parties in sustainable fashion, it focuses on economic globalization, which 'entails the closer economic integration of the countries of the world through the increased flow of goods and services, capital, and even labor.' The benefits to be realized, among others, are giving developing markets access to developed markets in which to sell goods and services, allowing foreign investments that will make new products for cheaper prices, and generally opening borders to allow for a smooth trade in education, labor, and capital. Relevant chapters in this book for this project are: 
    • The Promise of Development
    • Patents, Profits, and People
    • Lifting the Resource Curse

Johnson, Steven. Where Good Ideas Come From. New York: Riverhead Books, 2010. Print.
  • A book about how some environments encourage innovation, while others discourage it. Two examples are cities and the Web. Johnson identifies seven patterns accompanying historically successful innovations, which are the adjacent possible, liquid networks, hunches, serendipity, error, exaptation, and the building of platforms

Benyus, Janine M. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1997. Print
  • Explores how we might accelerate the practice of looking to nature as a model for innovations that are targeted, efficient, sustainable and brilliant. The 'laws of natural innovation' Benyus identifies fit quite well with many lean, potentially disruptive innovations being developed in emerging markets.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997. Print.
  • A significant book for this project due to the strong argument that a society's environment forms the boundaries of possible technological innovations. Diamond argues the environment factor to be so strong as to subtitle the book, 'The Fates of Human Societies.' While globalization has ensured a much greater spread of both physical and intellectual resources around the world, there is still a strong environment factor shaping technological innovations in each society around the world.

Keay, John. India: A History. New York: Grove Press, 2000. Print.
  • A seminal history of India from the earliest civilizations to the boom of the twenty-first century. Explores India's history through the lenses of archaeology, sociology, politics, economics, culture, and conquest.

Piketty, Thomas. Capital In The Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. Print.
  • A macroeconomic tome dedicated to illuminating the forces of economic convergence and divergence related to income and capital. Piketty makes a strong case for inclusive investments that benefit all. At least that's what I took away; my full review of the book is found on Goodreads


Hiatt, Howard, Charles Kenney, and Mark Rosenberg. Global Health at Home: Harvesting Innovations from Around the World to Improve American Medical Care. Harvard Magazine, November - December, 2016: .

Markides, Constantinos C. How Disruptive Will Innovations from Emerging Markets Be? MIT Sloan Management Review, 2012:

Wharton. Harvard's Clayton Christensen: Can Medical Innovation in Developing Countries Disrupt the U.S. Healthcare System? Wharton, 2012:

Govindarajan, Vijay and Sachin Deshpande. Reverse Innovation in Tech Startups: The Story of Capillary Technologies. Harvard Business Review, 2013:

Prahalad, C.K. and R.A. Mashelkar. Innovation's Holy Grail. Harvard Business Review, 2010:

Eyring, Matthew J., Mark W. Johnson and Hari Nair. New Business Models in Emerging Markets. Harvard Business Review, 2011: , 2011.

PricewaterhouseCoopers. Smaller, Faster, Cheaper: The Future of Medical Technology. PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2012:

Christiansen, Evelyn T., and Richard Tanner Pascale. Honda (A). Harvard Business School, 1983:

Adatia, Chirag, et al. Understanding Potential of Medical Devices Market in India. New Delhi: McKinsey.

Deloitte. Medical Technology Industry in India: Riding the Growth Curve. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India, 2010.

Durst, Tim. Taking Advantage of the Medtech Market Potential in India. India Medical Technology Industry Report. New York: PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010.

Bottles, Kent. “Reverse Innovation & the Cost Crisis in American Healthcare.” Healthcare Blog (September 14, 2011). Accessed September 4, 2014.

Mairal, Anurag. 2010. “Bioimplants and Devices – Wellness, by Design.” Biotech News 5(1). Accessed September 4, 2014. .

Knowledge@Wharton. “’Reverse Innovation’: GE Makes India a Lab for Global Markets.” Knowledge at Wharton (May 20, 2010). Accessed September 4, 2104. .

Jana, Reena. “Innovation Trickles in a New Direction.” Bloomberg Businessweek (March 23 and 30, 2009). Accessed September 4, 2014. .

Crainer, Stuart. “The Dawn of Reverse Innovation.” Forbes India (April 16, 2010). Accessed September 4, 2014. .

Rajakannu, Manimaran. “Reverse Innovation: Why Medical Device Manufacturers Expanding into Foreign Markets Must Tap into Local ER&D Resources.” Medtechinsider India (April 2011). Accessed September 4, 2014.

Wanamaker, Ben and Devin Bean. "Seize the ACA: The Innovator's Guide to the Affordable Care Act." Clay Christensen Institute (September 2013). Accessed October 6, 2014.

Vijayaraghavan, Vineeta. "Disruptive Innovation in Integrated Care Delivery Systems." Clay Christensen Institute (October, 2011). Accessed October 6, 2014.

Wanamaker, Ben. "Untangling the Bundled Insurance Problem." Clay Christensen Institute (August 2013). Accessed October 6, 2014.

Christensen, Clayton et al. "Will Disruptive Innovations Cure Healthcare." Harvard Business Review (2000). Accessed October 8, 2014.

World Health Organization. "Compendium of New and Emerging Health Technologies." WHO (2011). Accessed October 13, 2014.

Sayed, Shamsuzzoha B et al. "Developed-developing Country Partnerships: Benefits to Developed Countries?" Globalization and Health (June, 2012). Accessed October 13, 2014.

Brill, Steven. "Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills are Killing Us." Time Magazine (April, 2013). Accessed December 30, 2014.


  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  4. The article has so many references and books I don't know how am I going to go through all of these. If it is easy for you can you mention any specific book from which I should start reading?

    1. Hi, my suggestion is to read The Innovator's Prescription first.

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